Ceresana Research expects to see continuous growth at an average rate of 2.3% pa until 2017. Revenue from plastic closures in Europe will consequently increase from €1.7 bln to more than €2 bln pa. The selection of caps and closures is not usually straightforward, and new varieties of push-pull, twist-top, snip-tip, toggle-swing are constantly being developed. Although inexpensive and standard products are being applied in many sectors, the trend towards more complex closure systems remains unbroken. Above all, more functionality, better technical characteristics, and convenience are in demand, in addition to weight reduction and energy saving during production and recycling. Synthetic wine corks, spray pumps, caps for deodorant rollers, caps for tubes, and other closures are typically only small parts, but are altogether a noticeable growth market: More than 200 billion plastic closures were sold throughout Europe in the past year, 60 bln more than at the start of the decade. Manufacturers of caps and closures, as well as producers of the corresponding machines and suppliers of plastics and additives will primarily profit from an increased use of plastic packaging for foods and drinks. Polypropylene and polyethylene are being used increasingly for closures. Significant growth can especially be seen in certain sub-segments of the beverage sector, such as beer, yogurt, milk products, and sports drinks. Production and consumption of plastic caps and closures is seeing the strongest growth in Russia, Poland, and Turkey. Manufacturers in Eastern Europe are investing above all in mass production of standardized products, such as screw-caps for PET bottles. In contrast, producers in Western Europe are concentrating, for example, on complex closures systems with seals and built-in dosing devices for medications. Optical characteristics, such as transparency and gloss, especially play an important role in packaging for cosmetics.