|Wind is on the cusp of becoming a major source of electricity around the world. Over the past decade, growing concerns about global climate change has led to an increase in installation of wind turbines, pushing wind to become a noticeable contributor to the world�s energy mix. In 2010, China climbed to World Number One position, surpassing USA in the total amount of installed wind capacity. However, when one accounts for country sizes, those with impressive wind energy consumption are: Denmark with 21% of its power from wind; Portugal (18%); Spain (16%); Germany (9%). In China, wind contributed 1.2 % of overall electricity supply, while in the US, wind�s share reached about 2% with 35% of the new-build for the past three years being wind power.
Wind power market was projected to slightly decline in 2010 compared to 2009 due to a slowdown in the US market that has resulted from a lack of clear federal support for wind power and a �tight project finance market.� The US market is expected to pick up considerably again in 2011 and total installed capacity is expected to increase significantly again as well.
As per cleartechnica, in 2010, China installed the most wind power by far, 18,928 MW (49.5% of total new wind power capacity worldwide). Newly installed wind power capacity in China in 2009 was 13 GW, which more than doubled its previous total cumulative installed capacity of 12,104. This accounted for 34.7% of newly installed wind power capacity worldwide and put China at Number One for newly installed capacity. 2010's growth gives China the most total installed wind power capacity in the world at 44,733 MW (22.7% of world capacity).
In 2010, the United States installed much less than China but was still second in the world in new installations at 5,115 MW (13.4% of newly installed capacity). 2009 installed capacity was 9,922 MW of wind power, accounting for 26.5% of newly installed capacity worldwide. At the end of 2010, it had 40,180 MW of wind power capacity installed, the second-most in the world. The Top 5 US states for installed wind power capacity in 2010 were:
• Texas with 10,085 MW
• Iowa with 3,675 MW
• California with 3,177 MW
• Minnesota with 2,192 MW
• Washington with 2,105 MW
38 states have utility-scale wind installations and 14 states have over 1,000 MW of wind power capacity installed.
EUROPE: Europe led the world in wind power capacity for awhile and has had steady wind power growth over the past several years. Growth dipped a bit in 2010. It has lost the lead to Asia only in 2010. 6 of the top 10 countries in total installed wind power capacity and newly installed wind power capacity in 2010 continued to be European countries.
Germany: With a total of 27,214 MW of wind power, it is the clear leader in Europe today. In 2010, it was second in newly installed wind power in 2010, installing 1,493 MW. It was 3rd and 5th in the world, respectively.
Spain: Installed the most wind power in Europe in 2010, 1,516 MW, and is second in total cumulative installed wind power capacity at 20,676 MW. It was 4th in the world in both categories.
Italy: 6th in total installed wind power capacity (3rd in Europe): 5,797 MW and 8th in newly installed wind power capacity (5th in Europe): 948 MW
France: 3rd in total installed wind power capacity (4th in Europe): 4,574 and 4th in newly installed wind power capacity (3rd in Europe): 1,086 MW
UK: 8rd in total installed wind power capacity (5th in Europe): 5,204 MW and 7th in newly installed wind power capacity (4th in Europe): 962 MW
India: Is currently the 5th-largest in the world. It has increased from only 220 MW of installed wind power capacity in 2000 to 13,000 MW in 2010. In 2010, it installed 2,139 MW (3rd-most in the world). Like China, it is also looking to increase its wind power capacity tremendously in the coming years.
As per gwec.net, the summary of current fiscal and tax incentives in India that provide an impetus to its growth include: :
• 80% accelerated depreciation for investors if the project is commissioned before 30 September of the same financial year; or 40% if the project is commissioned before 31 March of the same financial year
• Generation Based Incentive (GBI) scheme for grid interactive wind power projects -a GBI of Rs 0.50 per kWh as introduced in 2009
• Concession on import duty on specified wind turbine components
• 10 year income tax holiday for wind power generation projects
• 100% exemption from excise duty on certain wind turbine components
• Wheeling, banking and third party sales, buy�back facility by states
• Guaranteed market through a specified renewable portfolio standard in some states, as decided by the state electricity regulator
• Reduced wheeling charges as compared to conventional energy
• 100% FDI investment allowed in renewable energy generation projects
• Special incentives provided for promotion of exports from India for various renewable energy technologies under renewable sector specific Special Economic Zones (SEZ).
• Wind potential states have announced preferential tariffs, ranging from Rs 3.39�5.32 per kWh
Wind is widely available around the world and its recent rapid growth is expected to continue as it is the cheapest, or, at least, one of the cheapest, sources for creating new electricity on the grid. In 2010, installed wind capacity reached 197 gigawatts (GW) and produced about 2.5% of the world�s electricity. As per cleartechnica, mostly, wind farm owners rely on getting paid for �energy-only.� There are occasions where wind energy warrants some degree of capacity payment or even ancillary services payments. Mostly, the value of wind capacity is low, about 10 to 20% of nameplate capacity. So, a 100-MW wind farm is only worth as much as 15 MW of nuclear power from a capacity standpoint.
As per Michael Milligan, a researcher at the National Wind Technology Center, there are four costs to integrating wind:
• Committing unneeded generation
• Allocating extra load-following capability
• Allocating additional regulating capacity
• Increased cycling operation
Many studies have found the cost of wind integration to US$3-5/MWh range, or about 4/10th of a cent per kWh.